Epigallocatechin Gallate AMPK Activation

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What is Epigallocatechin Gallate

Epigallocatechin Gallate is a kind of polyphenol found in green tea. Simply put, it is a phytochemical or a compound that can be abundantly found in many natural plant food sources. However, note that polyphenols can also be produced in the laboratory.

This chemical has anti-oxidant properties. Chemical compounds like these play an important role in the body’s overall wellness. It is actually an essential when it comes to health maintenance.

This particular polyphenol is also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate. You can also refer to it as EGCG for short. It is also classified as a type of catechin. It is actually an ester of gallic acid and epigallocatechin.

What Plant(s) is This Compound Extracted From?

Epigallocatechin Gallate is most abundant in tea. It can be found in high concentrations in dried white tea leaves. You can extract about 4,245 mg of EGCG for every 100 grams of its dried leaves.

However, do take note that EGCG is more abundant in green tea. For every 100 grams of green tea you can get as much as 7,300 mg. This polyphenol can also be extracted from black tea but only in smaller quantities. However, it should be noted that during the production of black tea, a huge amount of Epigallocatechin Gallate along with other catechins undergo polyphenol oxidation and they get converted into thearubigins and theaflavins.

Other than a variety of tea sources, Epigallocatechin Gallate can also be extracted from carob powder – you can usually get about 109 mg of Epigallocatechin Gallate for every 100 grams.

There are other possible sources of this polyphenol as well. These include pecans, hazelnuts, onions, plums, and the skin of apples.

Bioavailability

It should be noted that Epigallocatechin Gallate has a really low poor bioavailability. Its amounts peak in the blood for about 1.7 hours. After such time it is excreted in 3 to 15 hours.

Mechanism of AMPK Activation by Epigallocatechin Gallate

Even with the popularity of tea as a drink consumed on a daily basis, there is still very few systematic studies conducted regarding its potential health benefits. Nevertheless the studies that have been conducted so far suggest that there is a huge potential for its use as a treatment for cancer and other maladies.

In the process of defining the mechanism by which EGCG’s AMPK activation, it was found that the process was mediated by CaMKK or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. This is according to a study that was published in 2007. Click here to view the details of the said study.

According to the same study, the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis as well as AMPK activation via EGCG is ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) dependent.

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate mimics insulin function in its action to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis. On top of that, there is evidence that this green tea sourced polyphenol has strong cancer chemopreventive effects. According to one review, it regulates the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, matrix metalloproteinases, EGFR, VEGF, and others.

It also inhibits the signaling pathways of AP-1, Ras/Raf/MAPK, PI3-K/Akt, and NFk B, which suggests anti-cancer effects. To view the said review, please click here.

Effects of Taking Epigallocatechin Gallate

According to another study, phenolics sourced from green tea will interact with monocarboxylate transporter 1. The effect is that it inhibits colon cancer cells’ differentiation that is induced by butyrate (NaB), which is one of the main products that is produced when dietary fiber is fermented.

The same study shows that Epigallocatechin Gallate along with another catechin known as epicatechin have been demonstrated to have properties that counter tumors. These are actually the two most abundant phenolic compounds in green tea.

The said study was published on December 2013. To see the details of the said study, please click here.

In a different review, it has been pointed out that EGCG, using low to moderate concentrations, can boost immune response and it can also start up the body’s antioxidant systems. This is especially true in such cases as inflammation induced by obesity, alcoholic fatty liver, and ischemia where there is an increase in oxidative stress.

The same study suggests that using EGCG can be useful when it comes to weight loss. It has become a pretty recent discovery that this polyphenol plays a huge role in the body’s lipid metabolism all the way to the cellular level. Of course, there is still a lot more to learn on how to fully make use of this compound for that very purpose.

Nevertheless, it has been observed that drinking green tea in moderate amounts can help increase lipolysis. That is already pretty encouraging in itself if you’re considering using tea as part of your weight loss regimen. However, until more research and facts can be presented, it should be expected that it might not work for everyone. To see the details of the said study, please click here.

Some experts have observed that EGCG is more effective in reducing visceral fat (aka the fat in your tummy).

Benefits of Taking Epigallocatechin Gallate

The possible benefits of taking Epigallocatechin Gallate have been cited in the discussion above. It has powerful antioxidant effects though there may be other effects on the cellular level depending on a variety of conditions.

According to a variety of studies that have been conducted, the antioxidant action of EGCG can provide protection from the reaction of free radicals which includes DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

It can also promote the growth of neural cells, which may help improve cognitive function and memory. It also has cancer fighting action by inducing a level of toxicity to certain types of cancer cells.

Studies also suggest that epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea can be beneficial to patients with Alzheimer’s disease. This is from a study conducted in 2005 conducted by the Psychiatry and Behavioral Science department of the Silver Child Development Center. The said study was published in the Journal of Neuroscience back in 2005.

Recommended Dosage

According to one study, it has been observed that a daily dose of 800 mg of EGCG (caffeine free) is safe or at least well tolerated by healthy people. Note that there aren’t enough studies that focus on long term therapy, daily administration, and frequency. It is best that you consult with your doctor for dosage instructions if you intend to use this polyphenol as part of your regimen.

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